Travish: This is Travish. Did they call it D-Day for DOUGHnut Day? Today is National D-Day and National DOUGHnut Day, so I think that must be the reason (this is not for an assignment)
[Just Another Libarian 12:34:38]: Librarian ‘(Censored)’ has joined the session.
[JAL 12:36:44]: No, it does not. There is a Donut day, but d-day stands for the following…After overcoming fierce resistance the allies broke through the German defences; Paris was liberated on 25 August, and Brussels on 3 September. D-day is also military jargon for any day on which a crucial operation is planned. D+1 indicates the day after the start of the operation.
[JAL 12:37:31]: Five beaches – Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword – were selected as the landing points for the Allied forces. The operation was preceded by airborne landings to secure the flanks and destroy vital bridges and gun positions. The landings commenced at 0630 hrs, and by midnight 73,000 US and 83,000 British and Canadian troops and their equipment were ashore and the beachheads were being linked into a continuous front. The German response to the landings was hampered by the damage done to their communications, by a rigid command structure which required a personal directive from Hitler before any of the reserve elements could move, and by the belief that the landing was a feint and that the major Allied attack would come in the Pas de Calais region, a belief fostered by Allied deception operations.
Although the operation was a success, casualties were heavy: Allied losses during the day amounted to 2,500 killed and about 8,500 wounded. Allied air forces flew 14,000 sorties in support of the operation and lost 127 aircraft.
[JAL 12:37:47]: D-day. (2013). In The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide. Retrieved fromhttp://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/heliconhe/d_day/0
[JAL 12:38:56]: There was a lot of blood shed on that beach on June 6th, 1944.
[JAL 12:39:55]: National Donut day….http://time.com/money/2827877/free-donuts-national-donut-doughnut-day-2014/
[TRAVISH 12:40:09]: Wow, I did not know ANY of that. Mr. Matthews only taught up to the Great Depression
[JAL 12:40:38]: http://www.salarmychicago.org/donutday/donutDayHistory.htm
[TRAVISH 12:42:26]: Hhhmm, so DOUGHnut Day started before D-Day. Was today’s D-Day the first D-Day?
[TRAVISH 12:43:43]: Also, do you think they got to eat DOUGHnuts before the crucial military operation?
[JAL 12:44:02]: Today marks the 70th Anniverary, so no, it is not the first D-day.
[JAL 12:45:19]: I don’t think that donuts were consumed on a mass level. There were probably a few soldiers who did…pure conjecture on my part.
[TRAVISH 12:47:41]: I aggree, at least a few PROBABLY did eat DOUGHnuts! (I don’t need a source for that since this is not for an assignment)
[JAL 12:49:38]: 29 September. General Eisenhower, American Commander-in-Chief, reports that average German food consumption is about one third below the recognised subsistence level of 2000 calories daily. He argues also that the presence of zonal boundaries is disrupting economic activity and notes that the American Zone includes only a small part of Germany’s industry and none of its coal.
[TRAVISH 12:50:40]: So you’re saying he thought the Germans could use some DOUGHnuts?
[JAL 12:50:50]: This crisis was compounded by food shortages, disease, economic collapse, the destruction of infrastructure and industrial capacity, and political uncertainty. The humanitarian problems were largely patched up in the short term through a remarkable feat of effort and improvisation, but it took years and the stimulus of the Marshall Plan (1947-52) for European societies and economies to recover.
[JAL 12:51:20]: As the war progressed, the Red Cross movement became increasingly involved in relieving hungry and destitute civilian populations. Supplies of food, medicines, and other necessities bought with funds from national Red Cross societies were shipped into neutral Portugal and sent by train to Geneva for distribution across the continent. A powerful lobbying campaign in the winter of 1941-42 by the International Committee and local British famine committees, among others, forced the British government to lift its blockade on Axis-occupied Greece. Thanks to the huge quantities of food shipped by the Red Cross and the opening of hundreds of feeding centers, the Greek famine was brought to a halt, but more than 200,000 died of starvation.
[JAL 12:52:21]: Concentration Camps and Displaced Persons
The two most pressing relief problems the Allies faced at the war’s end were displaced persons (DPs) and the concentration camps.
The great majority of Allied DPs were liberated in the final stages of the war, in Germany and Austria. As well as concentration camp prisoners, they included forced laborers and POWs; many had been force-marched long distances westward early in 1945. The relief needs of enemy combatants and civilians, including the many who had fled ahead of the Soviet advance, were dealt with separately by the occupying powers, but this process was also related to more complex issues of war reparations, de-Nazification, and democratization. A considerable military deployment was needed to gather these different groups into reception centers, sort them out by nationality, and arrange their repatriation. Nevertheless, nearly six million DPs were repatriated by autumn 1945 (some forcibly to Soviet-controlled countries) and many others repatriated or resettled during the next few years. There remained a hard core of longer-term refugees, mostly Jewish Holocaust survivors, who no longer had homes and families to return to and were unable to obtain entry to other countries. The last camps were not closed until the mid-1950s.
[JAL 12:53:32]: Relief of the camps followed a common pattern, although it involved a high degree of improvisation by those involved, who were primarily the military with some help from UNRRA specialists, medical volunteers and, later on, other voluntary organizations. The first soldier liberators, horrified at what they discovered, but still in pursuit of a retreating enemy, handed over their food rations and chocolate and moved on.
[JAL 12:54:15]: Relief and Survival
In two key areas, the European relief efforts in and after 1945 were more successful than their post-1918 forerunners: tackling starvation and disease. Advances in public health planning and practice and the advent of new drugs, including the widespread use of the insecticide DDT to kill the lice that spread typhus, contained epidemics. Wartime experience of ration controls and better nutritional science helped to avert famine, as did massive UNRRA food aid, although shortages persisted for some time and were particularly serious in Italy, Germany, and Austria. Technical specialists in these and other fields became an accepted and indispensable part of relief and reconstruction programs.
[JAL 12:54:42]: I see no mention of donuts.
[TRAVISH 12:55:14]: It was probably just assumed (who doesn’t eat DOUGHnuts?)
[TRAVISH 12:55:43]: Was that information also from The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia
[TRAVISH 12:57:13]: One more question: I am about to go to Dunking DOUGHnuts. Can I just get a glazed DOUGHnut for free, or is it ANY kind of DOUGHnut?
[JAL 13:00:02]: Yes. Have a nice day. And I hope you take a few moments out of your day today to reflect upon those thousands of lives that were lost on all sides. And those who sacrificed their lives so that we may learn, laugh and enjoy the freedoms we have in our time, and the work that lies ahead to ensure that future generations may enjoy even more. Have a nice day.
Mr. Matthews is right, I should have INSISTED on primary, or at least secondary sources. Also, the libarian said “have a nice day,” but I don’t think he REALLY meant it. He also can’t spell the word “DOUGHnut”